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List of publications and reports using data Cybelle Mediterranean

2018: Evalutaion of collision risk zones between large commercial vessels and sperm whales in the Pelagos Sanctuary and adjacent waters. -> more

2016: Structure and population dynamics of sperm whales and black whales frequenting the northwestern Mediterranean basin -> More

2016: Characterization of the Fin Whale Population in the North-West Mediterranean Basin -> more

2015: Grand Dolphin Project: Design and Management in the Mediterranean (GDEGeM). Minutes of the study -> more

2015: 23 years Analysis of photo-identification of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) -> more

2014: Whale-Watching in the French Mediterranean: state of play and recommendations. -> more

2012: Preferential Habitat of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean -> more

2012: Synthesis on the distribution of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary and adjacent waters, contacts with their environment. -> more

2012: Importance of submarine canyons for populations of cetaceans and seabirds in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. -> more

2011: Study of the Grand Dauphin Tursiops truncatus in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwest Mediterranean) -> more

2011: High risk of collision between ships and whales: multi-specific approach in the Mediterranean Sea based on modeling of preferred habitats. -> more

2010: vessel traffic impact on cetaceans -> more

2010: Predictive modeling of the distribution of two large cetaceans (fin whale and sperm whale) from the characteristics of their habitat. -> more

2010: Comparison of data from aerial (helicopter) and eco-voluntary -> more

2009: Analysis of the geographic distribution of cetaceans in relation to environmental parameters -> more


2018: Evalutaion of collision risk zones between large commercial vessels and sperm whales in the Pelagos Sanctuary and adjacent waters.

Collisions with ships represent a critical risk of mortality for cetaceans. In the Pelagos Sanctuary, 200.000 ships over 100 tons sail each year, and predictions announce a multiplication by 3 or 4 by 20 years ago. In this context, this study focuses on the case of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), for which a collision with a large boat is often fatal (90% mortality at 15 nodes and more). The population of sperm whales in the north-western part of the Mediterranean is estimated at less than 450 individuals, and the study estimates a risk of collision for 17% of them (74 sperm whales) each year between July and August, a period when the maritime traffic is particularly dense!
The authors used the data collected by collector structures, including those of Cybelle Planète. With these data, they drew maps showing areas at high risk of collision between large commercial vessels (ferries, cargo ships ...) and sperm whales. They have shown that the coast of Marseille in Genoa and the south-east of Corsica are particularly concerned by this risk, during the months of July and August.

Di Meglioetal2018

Reference :

2019 - Sperm whale ship strikes in the Pelagos Sanctuary and adjacent waters: assessment and mapping collision risks in summer, Di-Meglio N., David L., Monestiez P., J. Cet. Res. Man. 18: 135-147


2016: Structure and population dynamics of sperm whales and black whales frequenting the northwestern Mediterranean basin.

The authors of this report have used the data collected since 20 years by various collecting organisms in the North-West Mediterranean Sea, including Cybelle Planète: observations and exploratory effort, photo-identifications, biopsies ...

The study aims to improve our knowledge of the status of sperm whale and pilot whale populations in the North-Western Mediterranean.

For pilot whales, the study shows that the average population counts 1107individus in the area from the Gulf of Lion to the Ligurian Sea, which seems to be a favorite area for the reproduction of the pilot whale. The average size of social groups is 19,5 individuals, with groups of more than 100 individuals! Most observations were made in the spring and summer, with the presence of newborns during this period. The population study shows that it has tended to increase to 2011, then decrease.
On 165 pilot-tagged pilot whales, only 13 were recaptured (photographed) several times. Analysis of the data suggests that pilot whales are fairly faithful to their geographic location and return regularly, but it is important to note that data on this species are still missing in order to draw reliable conclusions about their behavior. (

For sperm whales, the study estimates the population of North-West Mediterranean to 111 animals on average, a small population and therefore with a strong conservation stake. Sperm whales are found in groups of 1 (usually solitary males) at 15 individuals, large groups being observed during the summer. The study also showed a change in behavior since 2007 with the appearance of large social groups of sperm whales, with newborns, in the study area suggesting a shift in the Mediterranean ecosystem.

The report finally encourages the continuation of scientific monitoring at sea, and values ​​the work of data collection programs like Cybelle Méditerranée.

globicephanes nn 1992 2015

sperm whales groups 1992 2015

reference: DI-MEGLIO N., TARDY C., ROUL M., DAVID L., ODY D., JACOB T., GIMENEZ O., LABACH H., 2016. Structural elements and population dynamics of sperm whales and black whales frequenting the North-West Mediterranean basin. Port-Cros National Park, Animator of the French part of the Pelagos Agreement and GIS 3M. Fr .: 84 pp.


2016: Characterization of the Fin Whale Population in the North-West Mediterranean Basin

The authors of this report used the data collected by different collecting agencies in the North-West Mediterranean Sea, including Cybelle Planète. The objective is to better know the population of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in this geographical area: observations, observation efforts, photo-identification biopsies.
The study assesses the size of the fin whale population in the northwestern basin of the Mediterranean at 1129 individuals on average. It also shows that the north-west of the Mediterranean is a privileged area for minke whales, especially off the Ligurian-Provençal coast and the southern Hyères Islands.
The analyzes reveal that females give birth once every 3 years. The whales seem to gather in the spring to reproduce. Finally, the study shows an increase in the number of fin whales between 1992 and 2015 compared to the previous period.
The study recommends the continuation of fin whale monitoring activities, and encourages data collection and photo-identification campaigns such as those carried out by Cybelle Méditerranée.

rorqual evolution nn 1992 2015

reference: Tardy C., Di-Meglio N., Roul M., David L., Ody D., Jacob T., Gimenez O., Labach H., 2016. Characterization of the population of Fin Whales frequenting the North-West Mediterranean basin. Port-Cros National Park, Animator of the French part of the Pelagos Agreement and GIS 3M. Fr .: 63 pp.


2015: Grand Dolphin Project: Study and Management in the Mediterranean (GDEGeM). Minutes of the study

2 large dolphin

Summary

This program took place between 2013 and 2015, and involved various scientists and data collection structures, including Cybelle Planète.

  • In the Gulf of Lions, the results show a favorable habitat for the Grand Dauphin northwestern Mediterranean.
    • The results show that the bottlenose dolphins are resident all year, with a maximum attendance in summer.
    • The Great Dolphins are preferentially in the coastal strip up to 12 nautical miles.
    • Large dolphins live in groups, made up of 17 individuals on average (up to 50 dolphins are observed regularly).
    • Newborns are observed throughout the year.
    • The Great Dolphins preferentially feed behind trawlers.
    • More than half of the photo-identified Big Dolphins appear to reside in the Gulf of Lion.
  • For the whole of the French Mediterranean:
    • The populations of Corsica and the continental coasts appear to be distinct and no movement between these two regions has been observed. The populations are estimated to 149 individuals for Corsica, and 714 individuals frequenting the continental coasts.
    • Shifts occur on large scales along the continental coast (between the Gulf of Lion and Provence).

References

Di-Méglio N. Roul Mr. David L., O. Gimenez, Azzinari C. Jourdan J. Barbier and Mr H. Labach 2015. Abundance and spatial and temporal distribution and functional dolphin in the Gulf of Lion. Project GDEGeM dolphin Study and Management in 2013-2015 Mediterranean. Report GIS3M, made by EcoOcéan Institute, BREACH and GECEM. 79 p. + Appendices 9p.

Labach H., O. Gimenez, Mr Barbier, J. Jourdan, David L. and Di-Méglio N., Mr. Roul, Azzinari C. Robert N. and N. Tomasi, 2015. Study population and conservation of the Grand Dauphin in French Mediterranean. Project GDEGeM Bottlenose Dolphin Research and Management in 2013-2015 Mediterranean. GIS3M report. 55 p. + Annexes.


2015: 23 years Analysis of photo-identification of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)

Summary

The photo-identification catalogs collected by multiple operators, including Cybelle Planète, have been pooled and analyzed.

> Risso's dolphin is particularly far off the Provence, compared to the rest of northwestern Mediterranean waters.

dauphin risso 3

Reference

Labach H. et al. (2015) Analysis of 23 years of Risso's dolphins photo-identification in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, first result is the site fidelity and movements. Sci. Rep. Port-Cros Natl. Park, 29: 263-266


2014: The French Mediterranean whale watching: overview and recommendations

Summary :

With an average increase in the number of operators of + 3,5% per year, Whale-Watching commercial is a fast growing economic sector in the French Mediterranean. Thirty-two operators currently share the market, mainly from June to September. They operate between La Ciotat and Le Lavandou and, to a lesser extent, off Menton and between Cannet en Roussillon and Cerbère. The crossing of distribution maps of cetacean activity and distribution shows that the five species targeted by the operators are exposed, at different levels, to risks of disturbance and collision. Faced with these findings, it is urgent to launch a program to manage this activity in order to boost its strengths and limit its negative impacts. The authors recommend the rapid introduction of a high-quality environmental label, the basis of which was initiated as soon as 2007 by Pelagos and ACCOBAMS.

Reference

Mayol P., Di-Méglio N., David L., J. Couvat, Labach H., Mr. Ratel, 2014. The French Mediterranean whale watching: overview and recommendations. Sci. Rep. Port-Cros Natl. Park, 28: 133-143.


2012: Preferential Habitat of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

Summary

The Fin whale is one of the largest cetaceans most threatened by the risk of collision with ships. It is necessary to be able to better understand and predict its presence in certain areas. Based on the assumption that the distribution of the whale is directly related to its food, a predictive model is proposed. The latter uses satellite images of the amount of chlorophyll a in surface waters (the latter being directly related to the richness of phytoplankton and zooplankton), and the observations of this species at sea collected, in particular, by Cybele Planète.

  • The model is reliable at 80% and can be used to predict and analyze the distribution of fin whales in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The whales follow the seasonality of food, and can quickly cover large distances. They are more concentrated in the Ligurian-Provençal Basin in the summer and fall, and more scattered during the winter and spring.

card distribution

Reference

2012 - Potential whale feeding habitat of end in the Western Mediterranean Sea. JN Druon, Panigada S. David L. Gannier A., ​​P. Mayol, A. Arcangeli, Canadas A., Di-Méglio N., P. Gauffier Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser, 464. 29-306


2012: Synthesis on the distribution of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary and adjacent waters, contacts with their environment

Summary :

This study was conducted to provide an overview and understanding of the distribution of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary. It gathers data from 16 French and Italian partners including Cybelle Planet.

The indices of relative abundances obtained classify, as one might expect, the blue and white dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) First with 0,339 individuals per kilometer, and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, 0,021-1 ind.km), followed by pilot whale (globicephala melas, Ind.km 0,014-1) of the fin (Balaenoptera physalus, Ind.km 0,012-1) of Risso (Grampus griseus, 0,006-1 ind.km), and finally the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus Ind.km 0,002-1) ....

Overall, this synthesis allows to provide benchmarks for the entire Sanctuary for six species of cetaceans and identify potential suitable habitats of the two larger species over a period of over 10 years. These cards can be useful to managers to estimate potentially threatened by human activities some areas.

reference:

Laran S. et al. (2012) Synthesis distribution of cetaceans in the Sanctuary PELAGOS and adjacent water, put into relationship with their environment. Scientific Reports of Port-Cros National Park. 2012 - 26: 119-147


2012: Importance of submarine canyons for populations of cetaceans and seabirds in the north-western Mediterranean Sea.

This review summarizes the state of knowledge on the relationship between the abundance of cetaceans and seabirds and submarine canyons.

Submarine canyons are numerous in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The study focuses on the canyons of the Gulf of Lion, Provence, and Corsica. Six years of information gathering on cetaceans and seabirds, notably by Cybelle Planète, are being studied. The following factors were taken into account: number of species and their relative abundance, behavior of the animals, and data on available food.

  • The continental slope and canyons are the main feeding area for several species of cetaceans and seabirds: Risso's dolphin, sperm whale, Cory's Shearwater, Mediterranean Shearwater
  • The canyons are a secondary (but important) feeding area for Blue and White Dolphins, the Globalephales, who go there at the end of the day (during the plankton ascents).
  • The canyons are a more punctual feeding place for the Fin whale, which will go there rather in winter or spring when primary production is at its lowest.

Thus, considering the concentration of these species in the submarine canyons, it would be beneficial to include its zones in the measures of protection of the marine areas.

canyon map

reference:

David L. & N. Di-Megio (2012) Role and importance of submarine canyons for cetaceans and seabirds in the north-western Mediterranean sea. IUCN. Mediterranean Submarine Canyons - Ecology and Governance. M. Würtz Ed.


2011: Study of the Grand Dauphin Tursiops truncatus in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwest Mediterranean)

Summary :

3 large dolphin

The Pelagos Sanctuary is the largest Protected Marine Area in the Mediterranean, with 87500 km² area. It is common to observe whales, sperm whales, dolphins, pilot whales ... Although the presence of the Grand Dauphin is well documented, its distribution and abundance are relatively unknown. In 2006, the population of bottlenose dolphins in the Pelagos Sanctuary was estimated at about 1000 individuals. Given the lack of information on this Mediterranean population, it has been classified as DD (Data Deficient) in the IUCN Red List since 2006. The populations have, in a few decades, dramatically decreased with the degradation of their habitat, overfishing and hunting. It seemed urgent to set up a program dedicated to the bottlenose dolphins of the Western Mediterranean!

In this study, 13 years 10 data from observer organizations which were valued Cybelle Planet. Photo-identification was used to determine the movements and abundance of this species in the sanctuary.

  • We meet the Grand Dauphin near the coast: the results show that inside the shrine, the Grand Dauphin occurs mainly near the coast, in lower areas 200m deep.
  • The Grand Dauphin presents a rather sedentary behavior, in a territory of 50 square kilometers on average.
  • Two distinct groups live preferentially to the east of the Sanctuary (Italian population) and around Corsica (Population Corsica).

This new information is essential to adapt the measures of protection of the Bottlenose Dolphin in the Mediterranean: sedentary groups in small and near-shore habitats.

These results indicate that, due to their way of life, the populations of Great Dolphins are the first to be impacted by maritime traffic (pleasure craft and trade), pollution (waste and chemical pollution) and overfishing.

It could be considered asking what areas recognized as being essential to the conservation of this species are classified as "Special Areas of Conservation" (or SAC). The fact that the Pelagos Sanctuary is the result of an international agreement should facilitate the implementation of such measures, either in the sanctuary or in neighboring areas. It should be noted that since the publication of this article, SACs were implemented in the Pelagos Sanctuary, particularly around Corsica.

reference:

Gnone G. et al. 2011. Distribution, abundance, and movements of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Pelagos Sanctuary MPA (north-west Mediterranean Sea Aquatic Conservation:. Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17p.


2011. High risk of collision between ships and cetaceans: multi-specific approach in the Mediterranean Sea based on modeling of preferred habitats.

Summary

2 whale

Collisions with ships are a major threat faced by cetaceans in the Mediterranean. While the Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) do not frequent the same circles (the sperm whale to the continental slope and the whales further out), this study seeks to show in which areas the two species are likely to be encountered at the same time to define restricted areas.

Data collected over 10 years by almost 14 French and Italian organizations, including Cybelle Planet, have served to establish a model to define the preferred habitat of cetaceans, and in parallel, a boat smuggling the database (commercial, ferry, ...) through the Pelagos area. By comparing model and database, the top areas risk of collisions were able to stand out.

It appears that the whales have more risk of collision and off ferries (night) and merchant ships, while sperm whales would have more chance of being struck by merchant ships along the coast and ferries rallying the islands.

Several recommendations were proposed to avoid the most collisions. First, for large commercial vessels to have a person dedicated to whale watching during navigation, and use detection tools overnight. Then to report the presence of cetaceans through innovative collaborative systems such as REPCET system.

reference:

David L. & N. Di-Méglio 2011. High risk area of ​​collision entre vessels and cetaceans: a multi-specific approach in the Mediterranean Sea based on the modeling of preferential habitat. 25th Conference of the European Cetacean Society, 20-23 2011 March, Cadiz, Spain, 2011.


2010: vessel traffic impact on cetaceans

Summary

This report summarizes knowledge on the impact of vessel traffic on cetaceans. Several points are addressed:

  • The behavior of cetaceans in the face of maritime traffic,
  • Factors influencing the disturbance of cetaceans,
  • Noise pollution related to navigation,
  • Collisions,
  • Other impacts: pollution,
  • Proposal management and technical measures to limit the impact of vessel traffic on cetaceans.

Reference

Di-Méglio N., David L., F. Capoulade, Gambaiani D., P. Mayol, C. McKenzie, McKenzie E. & M. Schneider, 2010. Summary of knowledge on the impact of maritime traffic. Research Program Pelagos France 2007 / 2009. Final Report GIS3M. 334 p.


2010: Predictive modeling of the distribution of two large cetaceans (fin whale and sperm whale) from the characteristics of their habitat.

Summary

The data used were collected over 10 years, by research and data collection organizations, such as Cybelle Planète. They concern observations of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) And Cachalots (Physeter macrocephalus) According to expert monitoring protocols. These data have been confronted with environmental factors that characterize the habitats of large cetaceans (bathymetry, temperature, primary production, presence of phytoplankton).

With two models, it is possible to generate predictive maps of the favorable habitats of whales and sperm whales. Favorable habitat maps can be used to track changes in the distribution of species at the top of the food chain in response to changes in environmental variables. More specifically, they can be used as a basis for studies aimed at defining risk zones (collision, by-catch, etc.) or vital areas (favorable feeding areas) on which management measures are needed to conserve these endangered species .

Reference

2010 - Predictive modeling of the distribution of two whales (sperm whale and fin whale) from the characteristics of their habitat. David L., Di Fulvio T., Di-Méglio N. Delacourtie F. Monestiez Laran P. and S. Symposium "Ecology 2010", Montpellier (France), 2-4 September 2010.


2010: Comparison of data from aerial exits (helicopter) and those from ecovolunteer boats.

This study compared data collected from boats (eco-volunteering), for example Cybelle Planet, with aerial data from helicopter trips and collected by scienfitiques.

This comparison shows that the data collected on the eco-volunteer boats are quite comparable to scientific aerial data. In addition, it has the advantage of being collected throughout the day (not on an exit a few hours) and thus take into account the variations due to the behavior and ecology of cetaceans.

It is, however, that the scientific quality of supervisors remains an essential condition for the proper collection of data by ecovolunteers.

Reference :

2010 - Potential and Limits of aerial surveys for the monitoring of marine mammals. David L., Di-Méglio N. Paklepa B. and P. Monestiez Eur. Cetacean Research on 24, Stralsund (Germany), March 2010.


2009: Analysis of the geographical distribution of cetaceans in relation to environmental parameters.

Summary

As part of the Scientific Interest Group for Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean and their environment (GIS3M), sixteen organizations, including Cybelle Planète, have decided to share their data on the cetaceans of the Pelagos Sanctuary. All the observations made it possible to generate abundance indices for the 6 main species in the Pelagos Sanctuary:

  • 117 common whales / 100 km
  • Sperm whales 15 / 100 km
  • Pilot whales 143 / 100 km
  • Risso's dolphins 57 / 100 km
  • Dolphins 208 / 100 km
  • 3395 Blue Dolphins and white / 100 km

The bottlenose dolphin is the species whose attendance area is smaller (near the coast).

The whale Common Dolphin or Blue and White have very extensive habitat and are frequently seen in association with other species.

The Dolphin of Risso, the Globiocephalus, and the Sperm Whale, all the teutophagous 3 (feeding on squid, cuttlefish, ...), have spread out space and are very rarely observed in the same area.

obs map 2009

Reference

Delacourtie F., S. Larre, David L. & N. Di-Méglio, 2009. spatio-temporal analysis of the distribution of cetaceans in relation to the environmental parameters. Research Program Pelagos France 2007 / 2009. Final Report GIS3M. 262 p


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